Bone is a dynamic tissue, being continuously remodeled by the coordinated actions of osteoclasts and osteoblast lineage. Osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells, are derived originally from pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells. They synthesize and secrete organic extracellular matrix, osteoid, which is composed primarily of type I collagen. Osteoid is calcified by osteoblasts and during this process the cells become encased in lacunae within the calcified material and become osteocytes. Osteoblasts express protease-activated receptor-1 and vescular endothelial cell growth factor . Studies show that Leukemia inhibitory factor can bind to the osteoblast cell surface and induce bone formation both in vitro and in vivo . The balance between osteoblast recruitment, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in sutures between cranial bones is essential for calvarial bone formation .
HO-f from ScienCell Research Laboratories are isolated from human femur. HO-f are cryopreserved at primary cultures and delivered frozen. Each vial contains >5 x 10^5 cells in 1 ml volume. HO-f are characterized by the cytochemically detection of AP and mineral deposition. HO-f are negative for HIV-1, HBV, HCV, mycoplasma, bacteria, yeast and fungi. HO-f are guaranteed for 15 population doublings at the conditions provided by ScienCell Research Laboratories.
It is recommended to use Osteoblast Medium (OsM, Cat. No. 4601) for the culturing of HO-f in vitro.
HO-f are for research use only. It is not approved for human or animal use, or for application in in vitro diagnostic procedures.
Directly and immediately transfer cells from dry ice to liquid nitrogen upon receiving and keep the cells in liquid nitrogen until cell culture needed for experiments.
 Steinbrech, D. S., Mehrara, B. J., Saadeh, P. B., Greenwald, J.A., Spector, J. A., Gittes, G. K. and Longaker, M. T. (2000) VEGF expression in an osteoblast-like cell line is regulated by a hypoxia response mechanism. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 278: C853-C860.
 Dazai, S., Akita, S., Hirano, A., Rashid, M. A., Naito, S., Akino, K., Fujii, T. (2000) Leukemia inhibitory factor enhances bone formation in calvarial bone defect. J. Craniofac. Surg. 11(6):513-20.
 Marie, P. J., Debiais, F., Hay, E. (2002) Regulation of human cranial osteoblast phenotype by FGF-2, FGFR-2 and BMP-2 signaling. Histol. Histopathol.17(3):877-85.
4600 人颅骨造骨细胞 (HCO) ( 5×105 )
4700 人滑膜细胞（HS）( 5×105 )